Key Data Management Tasks and iRODS
iRODS, the Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System, is a state-of-the-art open source software system for addressing the key data management tasks that face users as the size and complexity of digital data collections continue to grow rapidly. Because the principal data management tasks are highly interrelated, rather than taking a piecemeal approach or addressing just a single task, the iRODS system takes a comprehensive approach to full data life cycle management.
At the same time, the system design is highly user-driven and avoids the pitfalls of a "one size fits all" design by building on a comprehensive generic platform with a highly configurable architecture. In addition, iRODS offers multiple paths to interoperation with outside systems such as repositories, interfaces, and applications. This lets users adapt iRODS to the details of their own environment in a wide range of production applications that can emphasize different aspects of data management in diverse domains.
Small scale use
iRODS can be downloaded and fully installed in a simple default configuration in a few minutes. For example, one user is applying iRODS in a stand-alone installation running on a single laptop computer, using external hard drives for data storage, in oceanographic research that simultaneously harvests multiple types of data from instruments on a research vessel in the Antarctic, far from shore-based support. Another institution is using iRODS to preserve periodic Web crawls to maintain a long-term historical view of their Web-based information.
Large scale use
Sharing and Preserving Data for Collaboration in a Data Grid
Because iRODS grew out of a supercomputing environment, it scales to very large use. Big scientific research projects such as the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI); the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC); the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO); the Australian Research Collaboration Service (ARCS); and the Centre de Calcul de l'Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (CC-IN2P3) in France are using iRODS for managing petybytes of data in hundreds of millions of files on distributed storage resources spread across the country and around the globe.
Preservation Environments for Long-term Archiving
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Transcontinental Persistent Archives Prototype (TPAP), and the National Library of France are examples of large-scale archival applications of iRODS.
Why Was iRODS Developed?
Recent decades have seen a rapid rise in collaborative activities in scientific research, and more broadly across many sectors of society. Driven by new information technologies such as the Web as well as the increasing complexity and interdisciplinary nature of today's research problems – from climate change to biomedicine, large-scale astronomical projects, and the world's increasingly integrated economies – are driving the need for technologies, sometimes called "cyberinfrastructure," that enable researchers to collaborate effectively continues to grow rapidly. The Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) is state-of-the-art software that supports collaborative research, and more broadly management, sharing, publication, and long-term preservation of data that are distributed.
A tool for collaboration, iRODS is itself the product of a fruitful collaboration spanning more than two decades among high performance computing, preservation, and library communities, whose real-world needs have driven and shaped iRODS development. The computational science and high performance computing (HPC) communities are inherently interdisciplinary, generating and using very large data collections distributed across multiple sites and groups. The massive size of these data collections has encouraged development of unique capabilities in iRODS that allow scaling to collections containing petabytes of data and hundreds of millions of files.
The preservation community brings the need for long-term preservation of digital information, a challenging problem that is still an active research area to which iRODS research activities have made significant contributions. Interestingly, there turn out to be significant commonalities in the requirements for preserving digital data in time and collaborative sharing of distributed data collections across space, whether geographic, institutional, disciplinary, etc. The third community that has contributed to iRODS development is the library community, with expertise in descriptive metadata that is essential for management, discovery, repurposing, as well as controlled sharing and long-term preservation of digital collections.
In collaborating with these communities, iRODS research and development has been characterized by close attention to the practical requirements of a wide range of users, resulting in pioneering architecture and solutions to numerous distributed data challenges that now form the iRODS Data System for managing, sharing, publishing, and preserving today's rapidly growing and increasingly complex digital collections.
The integrated Rule Oriented Data System (iRODS) is software middleware, or "cyberinfrastructure," that organizes distributed data into a sharable collection. The iRODS software is used to implement a data grid that assembles data into a logical collection. Properties such as integrity (uncorrupted record), authenticity (linking of provenance information to each record), chain of custody (tracking of location and management controls within the preservation environment), and trustworthiness (sustainability of the records) can be imposed on the logical collection. When data sets are distributed across multiple types of storage systems, across multiple administrative domains, across multiple institutions, and across multiple countries, data grid technology is used to enforce uniform management policies on the assembled collection.
The specific challenges addressed by iRODS include:
Management of interactions with storage resources that use different access protocols. The data grid provides mechanisms to map from the actions requested by a client to the protocol required by a specific vendor supplied disk, tape, archive, or object-relational database.
Support for authentication and authorization across systems that use different identity management systems. The data grid authenticates all access, and authorizes and logs all operations upon the files registered into the shared collection.
Support for uniform management policies across institutions that may have differing access requirements such as different Institutional Research Board approval processes. The policies controlling use, distribution, replication, retention, disposition, authenticity, integrity, and trustworthiness are enforced by the data grid.
Support for wide-area-network access. To maintain interactive response, network transport is optimized for moving massive files (through parallel I/O streams), for moving small files (through encapsulation of the file in the initial data transfer request), for moving large numbers of small files (aggregation into containers), and for minimizing the amount of data sent over the network (execution of remote procedures such as data subsetting on each storage resource).
In response to these challenges, iRODS is an ongoing research and software development effort to provide software infrastructure solutions that enable collaborative research. The software systems are implemented as middleware that interacts with remote storage systems on behalf of the users. The goal of the iRODS team is to develop generic software that can be used to implement all distributed data management applications, through changing the management policies and procedures. This has been realized by creating a highly extensible software infrastructure that can be modified without requiring the modification of the core software or development of new software code.